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6 Types of Car Insurance & What You Should Know About Each

Close up to a pair of hands covering a toy car to illustrate different types of car insurance

Each time your car insurance renews, you receive a packet from your insurance company. The package lists exactly what your auto insurance coverage includes and how much you pay for each type of coverage.

Have you ever wondered about the types of car insurance and what they mean? This article will help you understand your coverage overview — also known as your declarations page — and give you confidence that you have the car insurance you need.

Here’s what you need to know about each type of car insurance.

Liability Coverage

The first and possibly most important type of auto insurance coverage is liability. The purpose of this insurance is to pay for other people’s injuries and property damage if you’re determined to be at fault in an accident.

Liability coverage is the type of auto insurance required by the state. The state has minimum limits you need to drive legally, but it’s generally a good idea to have higher limits than just the minimum because injuries and property are expensive!

Why Would I Be at Fault?

You probably consider yourself a relatively safe driver, so why should you worry about how much liability you have? The truth is, there are a lot of ways to be at fault for an accident.

Being at fault for an accident doesn’t mean you did it on purpose. Instead, it means that you either caused or contributed to the circumstances that resulted in the crash. For instance, if you back out of a parking spot and hit another car, you’d likely be considered at least partially responsible.

You don’t have to be 100% responsible for paying damages, either. For instance, if a crash caused $10,000 of damage and you were 50% responsible, your liability would be $5,000.

There are certain types of accidents where you are almost always fully at fault. These include hitting stationary objects, like poles, signs, trees, or buildings. Of course, every claim is reviewed by your insurer, so you’d need to go through the claims process to get specifics on a particular incident.

Some states are known as “no-fault” states. That doesn’t mean no one is at fault. It means that medical injuries from an accident are generally paid from each driver’s own insurance policy. However, there are exceptions; if the injuries are severe enough, the driver who caused the accident will be responsible for paying damages.

Bodily Injury Liability

This coverage is specifically for injuries to others that you are responsible for. Generally, this coverage is listed as both per-person and per-accident.

No matter what, the insurance coverage will not go beyond the per-accident amount. However, if only one person is injured, the maximum the insurance will pay is the per-person amount.

Here’s an example. Let’s say you rear-ended a car that had two people in it. Person A’s injuries cost $10,000, and person B’s injuries cost $15,000.

If your car insurance liability is $10,000 per person and $20,000 per accident, the insurance will fully cover person A’s injuries, but person B will only get $10,000. You would be personally responsible for the remaining $5,000.

The important thing to remember is that you are legally liable for the rest of the damages once the insurance company pays your policy’s maximum limits. You could be sued and risk your savings, retirement, house, and more. That’s why having appropriate limits is essential.

Property Damage Liability

Damage to other people’s property is the second part of your liability coverage. This includes fixing their vehicle if you’re responsible for damages. However, it covers other things as well.

If you hit a light post, you have to pay the city for repairs. If you hit a mailbox, you’re responsible for replacing it. If you accidentally drive through a garage door instead of backing up, your liability coverage would help fix it.

Just like bodily injury coverage, if you cause more damage than your insurance policy maximum, you are responsible for the difference. You want to choose the correct limits for your budget — both monthly and long-term. Don’t put your financial future at risk.

Medical Payments or Personal Injury Protection

We’ve talked about treating other people’s injuries if you are at fault for an accident, but what about your own injuries?

Often, your health insurance is the first line of payment for your injuries in any situation. However, you may have medical payments or personal injury protection (PIP) listed on your policy as well.

These coverages can help reimburse your health insurance for some of the costs of treating your injuries, and they can also apply to the injuries of passengers in your vehicle.

If you’re injured and someone else is found at fault, their bodily injury liability coverage would pay your medical bills.

woman looking for the types of car insurance in her laptop

Uninsured Motorist Coverage

It’s a sad fact of life that not everyone has insurance coverage. If someone else is at fault for an accident, where do you get help with your bills if they don’t have insurance?

Uninsured motorist coverage is the answer. This type of car insurance offers a specific amount of money for both injuries and property damage sustained in an accident caused by an uninsured driver.

If you don’t have uninsured motorist coverage and someone causes an accident with you but doesn’t have insurance, you’ll have to sue for damages. Often, that takes a significant amount of time and money and doesn’t result in the compensation you deserve.


You now know that if someone else is at fault for an accident with you and damages your car, their property damage liability coverage will pay for damages.

However, if you are at fault for the accident, how do you get your vehicle repaired? This is where your collision insurance would apply.

Collision coverage is half of what people often refer to as “full coverage.” This type of car insurance pays to repair your vehicle in an accident where you collide with something and are at-fault. The payment cannot be above the cash value of the car, however.

Your collision coverage does have a deductible. This is the amount you pay, and the insurance pays the rest. For instance, let’s say there was $5,000 of damage to your vehicle, and your deductible is $1,000. The insurance pays $4,000, and you’re responsible for the amount of your deductible.

Having a higher deductible can make your insurance less expensive, but you don’t want to put yourself in a bind if the car needs to be repaired after an accident. Make sure you balance your monthly premium and the amount of money you’ll be able to come up with in case of an accident.

The state does not require you to carry collision coverage, but your bank (the lienholder) will probably require it if you have a loan on the car.


The other half of “full coverage” is known as comprehensive insurance. This type of car insurance pays to repair your vehicle, up to its cash value, in specific non-at-fault situations.

Some common types of comprehensive claims are:

  • Hitting a moving animal such as a deer
  • Theft
  • Vandalism
  • Glass or windshield damage
  • Flood
  • Hail damage

Like collision damage, this type of coverage has a deductible. You can choose a different deductible than you do for collision coverage if you like. Many people prefer a lower comprehensive deductible because it’s not as expensive as collision coverage.

The state does not require comprehensive insurance coverage, but if you have a loan, the bank will probably require both collision and comprehensive coverage so they can recoup money if anything happens to the vehicle.

Other Types of Car Insurance Coverage

There are a variety of other types of insurance coverage that you can carry as well. These additional options make your life easier if there is a claim on your policy. Talk to your agent about what other types of insurance might be available on your policy!

Emergency Road Service (ERS)

If you break down on the side of the road, need a tire change, or run out of gas, who do you call? Unless you have an auto club membership, calling a tow truck will be very expensive. However, you can carry emergency roadside service on your policy — often very cheaply — and have coverage for these incidents.

If you have ERS and need service, you’ll call the specific ERS number on your insurance card.

Rental Reimbursement

If your car has to be in the shop due to a claim, you’ll probably need a rental car to get around. Normally, your insurance policy doesn’t pay for a rental car, but you can get assistance if you have rental reimbursement.

This coverage offers a specific number of days with a maximum price per day. It can make a big difference if you need repairs due to a claim.

Now You Understand Types of Insurance Coverage

Now that we’ve reviewed the six types of insurance coverage, you’ll have a much better understanding of the information listed on your policy declaration page.

It can be tempting to minimize your insurance coverage to save money on your monthly premium. However, if you do and then there’s an accident or other loss, you may not have the insurance you need to get back on the road quickly. Curious about your coverages? Contact Freeway Insurance today. Our knowledgeable agents will walk you through your policy and ensure you have the right coverage levels for your needs.

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